Physical equipment (hardware), virtualization, management systems, automation tools, operating systems, and other system software and applications are all layers of IT that are utilised to accomplish critical operations. The IT domain can comprise user devices, peripherals, and software. IT also include the systems, techniques, and policies that govern data use and storage.


System software and applications are the two types of software. The computer programmes that manage the core computing functions are referred to as system software. The following are some of them:

OSes, BIOSes, boot programmes, assemblers, and device drivers are all examples of software.
The following are examples of business applications:

SQL Server, for example, is a database.

Real-time order entry systems; email servers, such as Microsoft Exchange; web servers, such as Apache and Microsoft’s Internet Information Services (IIS); customer relationship management systems, such as Oracle NetSuite and HubSpot; and enterprise resource planning systems, such as SAP S/4HANA
These programmes utilise pre-programmed instructions to alter, combine, disseminate, and otherwise operate with data for commercial purposes.

Mobile apps for smartphones, tablets, and other portable devices generally link to cloud or data centre apps over the internet. These applications have broadened computing’s breadth and spawned a new category of software and telecommunications that necessitates specialised knowledge to maintain.


Computer gear comes in a variety of shapes and sizes. Business applications are operated on computer servers. In the client-server architecture, servers interact with client devices. They can also communicate with other servers using computer networks that are usually connected to the internet.

Another sort of hardware is storage. It’s any technology that stores data as information. Storage can be installed on premises or accessed via a cloud service, and it can be local on a single server or shared across multiple servers. It can also be installed on premises or accessed via a cloud service. Data can be saved in a variety of formats, including files, multimedia, telephone, online, and sensor data. Vulnerable random-access memory (RAM), as well as non-volatile tape, hard disc drives, and solid-state drives, are all examples of storage hardware.

Network interface cards (NICs), cabling, wireless communications, and switching devices are used to link the physical parts together and to external networks.