(Russian tekhnika) The totality of means used by man in his activities and designed to carry out production processes as well as meet society’s nonproduction demands. Technology encapsulates the knowledge and experience gained during the evolution of social production. Its main purpose is to partially or completely replace man’s productive duties in order to reduce labor’s load and boost production. Technology allows for fundamental gains in the efficiency of human labour and the expansion of human capacities for useful labour based on man’s comprehension of natural laws. It enables the effective and integrated utilisation of natural resources, as well as the harnessing of the earth’s, seas’, atmosphere’s, and space’s natural wealth.

A complex of abilities and methods utilised in some craft or art, such as record keeping, dance, or piano playing, is referred to as tekhnika in Russian. It is equivalent to the English word “technique” in this sense.

Technology frees man from doing numerous production duties that require both physical and mental work as production develops and new instruments of labour are invented. Technology is used for a variety of purposes, including acting on the objects of labour in the creation of material and cultural values; obtaining, transmitting, and converting energy; studying the laws of natural and social development; providing transportation and communication; gathering, storing, processing, and transmitting information; and improving everyday life. Production technology, which includes power-engineering technology, and nonproduction technology, which is used in everyday life, scientific research, education, culture, military affairs, and medicine, are two types of technology.

The main stages of technological advancement.

From ancient man’s crude tools to the most complex automated gadgets of modern industry, technology has gone through a long development process. Machines developed to replace human labour in specific production and transportation operations played a particularly important role in the development of social production. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the advent of spinning jennies and the multifunctional steam engine ushered in the industrial revolution, signalling the shift from manual to machine production. The enhanced steam engine could power a number of machines instead of simply one. This was a prerequisite for the advent of numerous transfer devices, which often combined to form a complex mechanical system.

K. Marx outlined the evolution of mechanical means of labour, namely, instruments and machines, which are the most important part of technology: “Simple tools, the accumulation of tools, composite tools; the driving of a composite tool by hand, the driving of tools by natural forces; machines; systems of machines with one engine; and systems of machines with multiple engines.” This is how equipment progresses” (Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 4, p. 156). Large-scale industry owes its development to the machine, which is its most distinguishing mode of production. Machine tools, steam engines, and other machinery were originally built on a small scale by trained people in a cottage industry. Drive mechanisms, transfer devices, and machines to replace workers grew in size and complexity as time went on. There were new materials that were challenging to work with. As a result of these changes, there was a clear necessity for mass production and the utilisation of machines in industry. Large-scale capitalist industry established a suitable technical base by introducing machine-to-machine production.